Last year, I wrote one of my favorite blog posts on color deficiency considerations with respect to red and green. The overarching message is that if producing content for others, consider how you might want to use red/green (and as Naomi Robbins pointed out in the comments, even orange) in your viz so that as many people as possible can see your message. I plan on exploring this a little more, but for now, click the pic to the read the post.
Ryan's post from 2013 is probably one of my favorite color resources. I feel like it does a good job providing a recap of the psychology of color to how to do custom color palettes in Tableau. This is a must read for anyone wanting to understand the basics of color. Click on the image to go to the blog post.